Myth and Meaning: A Paradigmatic Analysis of Galdos' Fortuna

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Louis desired control over the Netherlands because of its economic power as a result of trade, because he wanted to crush Calvinists and Protestants, and because he desired increased territory. The Indo-European languages tend to be inflected (ie verbs and nouns have different endings depending on their part in a sentence). However, a critical look at the American Revolution can be sobering.� Studying how America celebrated its holidays in the early days, such as the Fourth of July, punctures a few myths.� Events such as the protest of the Stamp Act, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, and Paul Revere’s Ride look a lot different when the primary documents are considered and the patriotic veneer is stripped away. �Not only was Revere captured during his ride, the vast majority of Americans had never heard of him before Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote a poem about him in 1863.� Revere’s memory was in oblivion during the early 19th century.� When app raised objectively, the 1773 Tea Party was a deliberately provocative, quasi-military, destructive act, and no American revolutionary could have been too surprised when events led to war.� Why the Tea Party?� The thinking was to protest British taxation.� Fair enough, but the reasoning used by those “patriots” would fall flat today, when the nature of the cargo was contemplated.� The tea shipment was from the English East India Company and was bought with India’s blood .� Today’s radicals might have been impressed if the Tea Party radicals had protested in sympathy with the truly suffering colonized peoples of Asia, and not the self-serving motivation of tax avoidance.� That observation is not an instance of presentism, for some activists of the day held that enlightened understanding of the British tea “trade.” [174] � The American colonies, peopled by whites, were the least oppressed of the British colonies, and those who signed the Declaration of Independence were the colony’s elites, about half of them owned slaves, and they deliberately provoked Great Britain into America’s “War of Independence.”� The Eastern Oliga rchy quickly overcame Bostonian Radicalism, even before the Revolutionary War ended.� Even during the Revolutionary War, “patriots” were drafted and the rich easily got out of service.� American colonists had impressment riots during the 1760s when the British Crown conscripted sailors, yet the American government was doing the same thing by 1779, before the war was won.� In Connecticut, a law was passed that specifically exempted Yale’s students and faculty from conscription, and even then, a drafted man could buy his way out of service for five pounds. [175] � Even then, the US A's government could not afford to pay the soldiers, which was partly why Washington proposed “giving” Native American land to Revolutionary War veterans, and piracy was a popular way to serve one’s nation, getting a cut of the booty if one was lucky.� The practice of government-sanctioned piracy was nearly identical to how the Spanish Crown financed its 16th century New World adventures, and was called “privateering.”� Official English pirates such as Drake became knighted.� Official American pirates became “patriots.” Washington set the blueprint for what the USA concentrated on during the next century: stealing a continent.� The first century of Spain's tenure in the New World was history’s greatest genocide, and honor was not easily found among the mercenaries that conquered and annihilated Native Americans.� When the English showed up, they proved themselves as honorable as the Spanish, and poisoning the wine at a peace conference was an early example of English tactics.� Entering into treaties they had no intention of honoring was part of the English bag of tricks.� Those behaviors led to the native saying, “White man speak with forked tongue.”� Lying was not unknown among the native tribes, but somebody who lied was considered insane, as one who lost touch with reality. [176] � It was more of a sickness than a crime to many native tribes.� Washington’s strategy was a more refined version of what Europeans had been doing to Native Americans for three centuries.� European violence, dishonesty, and greed are not pleasant subjects, but they go a long way toward explaining why I live in Seattle, and are critically important to understand what is happening in today’s world.� In Am erican history circles, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark are heroic icons.� No imperial taint besmirches their noble expedition of discovery…or does it?� When he sent out the Lewis and Clark expedition to scout the ultimate reach of empire in North America, Jefferson lied so creatively to the Spanish ambassador about the USA's intentions that Eisenhower’s biographer, Stephen Ambrose, wrote that in the midst of his show, Jefferson was “into a third or fourth degree of indirection.” [177] � Lewis, Jefferson’s emissary to the great unknown, had messages to deliver.� On the Missouri River, at present day Council Bluffs, so named after the meeting between the expedition and the Oto tribe, Lewis and his men dressed in their military best and made a show of their military precision as they marched and shot their guns.� Then came the speech.� In essence, it was no different than the Requerimiento that the Spanish invaders read to their victims. [178] � Lewis began his speech by calling the natives “children,” and Jefferson the “Great Father.”� Lewis’s speech to the natives, who would have had limited understanding at best, as it went through a French translator, stated in essence: “You have never seen my kind before, but we are a mighty people, having sanction from the highest authority, and this land you have lived on for time immemorial is now ours.� If you submit to our rule, it will go well for you, but if you resist, we will destroy you, and it will be your fault.” European disease, especially smallpox, had already repeatedly decimated the Plains Indians.� The trigger-happy soldiers almost ended the exploration before it began, threatening to shoot their boat’s cannon at the Sioux, and only the cool head of a native leader saved the day. [179] � Native tribes all along the way hosted and assisted the expedition.� The expedition left a swath of destruction in its wake, wantonly chopping down trees and shooting anything that moved in order to provision themselves.� Western North America was the Northern Hemisphere’s last region that had not been shorn of its fur-bearing animals .� The fur trade would eliminate the fur-bearing animals there too, very quickly, as well as most Indian tribes and the vast bison herds.� Later in the expedition, on the way back, immediately after notifying some teenage Blackfeet braves that America had just allied with the Blackfeet’s traditional enemies and would arm them, Lewis and his men killed a Blackfeet boy and wounded a young brave while they tried stealing rifles and horses.� Lewis then hung a medal around the dead boy’s neck, to advertise the deed. [180] � Although Lewis and Clark were credited with great courage for mounting the expedition, how courageous was Clark’s slave, who was forced to walk every step with him, served Clark hand and foot, and then was beaten by Clark when they returned, as he became “insolent” when Clark refused to free him or reunite him with his wife? [181] � America’s most hu miliating war was the War of 1812, as the British burned Washington, D.

Pages: 200

Publisher: Scripta Humanistica (March 2002)

ISBN: 1882528387

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